Coastal management is a term that is used for any activity that takes place in the coastal zone for some particular purpose. Coastal management is very essential for protecting the coastal reason from coastal erosion. Apart from that it also helps to protect from the flood that occurs due to increasing water level of the sea. Since Coastal management involves all activities of coastal reasons it includes management for the conservation of Nature. A proper and accurate implementation of coastal management helps to protect natural habitat. However, the coastal management is very expensive. If the coastal management is not carried out properly, it can have an adverse economic and social effect in the country.
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A Key Approach in Coastal Management
There are four main steps or approaches that should be taken when engages in coastal management. These steps are discussed as follows:
- Holding the line: In this approach, existing coastal defense is maintained but it does not have any scope for setting new defense.
- Advancing the line: In this approach, attempts are taken to build the new defense in the sea in order to reduce the stress on the defenses that are already present. It also attempts to extend the coastline to some extent.
- Surrendering or Retreating the line: In this approach, what is done is that all the people and other inhabitants are moved out from the danger zone of the coastal place and let the nature to unleash the control of the situation.
- Doing nothing: In this approach, we ignore and don’t worry about what will happen to the area of the coastal reason. We allow the nature to take the control of the zone. We are less worried about this coastal zone as this generally occurs in such a place where there are no people and no valuable things exist there.
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Techniques for Coastal Management
There are various techniques for coastal management which includes both the hard and soft construction and planning approach. The hard construction is a traditional approach has been taking place from many years and in this approach, steps are taken to protect the soil erosion by stopping the wave energy from reaching the sore or any such measures for reflecting or absorbing the energy. The hard engineering techniques for coastal management include seawalls, groynes, gabions, revetments, riprap, breakwaters, tidal barriers.
The soft construction is an innovative approach which involves the promotion of natural systems such as beaches and salt marshes that helps in protecting the coastal reason from the erosion. The soft engineering techniques used for coastal management includes beach nourishment, land management, marshland creation, beach stabilization, etc. The soft construction is considered as more suitable than the hard construction approach for protecting the coastal reason.
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