What is Database Normalization?

Database normalization is a process in which a database is restructured in accordance with some normal forms. This helps to reduce data redundancy and to improve the integrity of data. Normalization takes into account that the attributes and relations of a database are according to the data integrity constraints.

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Two formal rules accomplish database normalization. These are 1) Synthesis: In this rule, a new database design is created. 2) Decomposition: In this rule, an existing database design is improved.

What is School Management System?

A School Management System refers to the digital management of all the activities of a school. Every process is computerized and based on different databases. These databases may be the total number of students, the total number of teachers, the total number of classes, number of different subjects taught in the school, number of administrative and support staff, the details of the parents, the infrastructure details and many more. These databases are normalized and integrated in such a way that the integrity constraints make different relations between the databases.

The different attributes of the school management system are students, classes, teachers, subjects, periods etc. These attributes are then put into different relations like students in various classes, students and their parents, students and teachers, teachers and classes, classes and subjects, subjects and periods and many more. The relation can not only be in two attributes but can also be in three or more attributes. When all these attributes and relations are integrated, it is called database normalization.

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Database normalization in school management system works as follows:

  • A school has a number of students and teachers. These students are assigned different grades or classes. A grade is given many subjects.
  • Every grade has different courses which are assigned to the students of that grade.
  • The grades are divided into sections if the number of students is quite high.
  • Attendance of students and teachers is also included in a database.
  • Different examinations carried out in a school are also added to a database.
  • When all these databases are created these are normalized according to the different attributes and the relations between them.
  • Each relation can be separated out according to integrity constraints. The database normalization is very helpful in maintaining records and coming out with meaningful relations.
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